In past three years the x-ray laboratory at the Department of Condensed Matter Physics, leading laboratory on the field of x-ray scattering in the Czech Republic and very well distinguished worldwide, underwent significant instrumental upgrade. Several modern – top class laboratory instruments substantially broadening the instrumental possibilities and available scattering techniques of the laboratory were commissioned. Namely i) the general purpose x-ray diffractometer equipped with a high flux rotation anode x-ray source and goniometer allowing both, coplanar and non-coplanar (in-plane) diffraction; ii) high energy x-ray diffractometer equipped with unique x-ray optical elements, operating with various x-ray energies (6.9 – 22 keV); and iii) apparatus dedicated to a small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and small angle x-ray scattering in non-coplanar geometry (GISAXS) measurements. All machines are equipped with modern 2D hybrid pixel, single photon counting, low noise, detectors.
This unique combination of x-ray diffractometers offers measurements covering a wide range of reciprocal space between q of 0.003 to 21 1/Å (q is a magnitude of reciprocal space vector), which allows the fundamental studies of materials properties in ranges from 0.03 up to 200 nm, in real space. The equipment represents a unique collection of instruments allowing nearly any type of laboratory accessible x-ray scattering experiment - measurements of single crystals, polycrystalline bulk and powder materials, nanocrystalline samples, thin films, multilayers and epitaxial layers.
The instruments can operate with various x-ray wavelengths (Co, Cu, Mo and Ag), and in different geometries: Bragg-Brentano geometry, medium resolution parallel beam setting, high resolution geometry, with monochromatic Kα1 radiation and in coplanar and non-coplanar (in-plane) mode. Various sample environments, low and high temperature chambers, deformation (tensile and compression) stage, reaction chamber are available for individual diffractometers. Methodologically the laboratory offers the structure solution and refinement, qualitative and quantitative phase analysis, the real structure of material studies: preferred orientation of crystallites – texture measurements, residual stress measurements, reflectivity measurements, rocking curve measurements, reciprocal space mapping, pair distribution function – total scattering measurements, small angle x-ray scattering and grazing-incidence small angle x-ray scattering.
In the lecture the experimental abilities of our x-ray laboratory together with examples of individual applications (with the focus to a special, challenging, or non-commonly used techniques) in materials research will be shown and discussed in details.